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2011璇鸿礉灏旂粡娴庡濂栧緱涓绘墭椹柉?钀ㄩ噾鐗?浼厠鍒╂瘯涓氭紨璁?

文章发布时间:2015/5/28 23:52:48 来源:



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2011璇鸿礉灏旂粡娴庡濂栧緱涓绘墭椹柉?钀ㄩ噾鐗?浼厠鍒╂瘯涓氭紨璁?/H1>

University of California at Berkeley graduation speech
鎵橀┈鏂?SPAN style="LINE-HEIGHT: 23px; WIDOWS: 2; TEXT-TRANSFORM: none; BACKGROUND-COLOR: rgb(255,255,255); FONT-VARIANT: normal; FONT-STYLE: normal; TEXT-INDENT: 0px; FONT-FAMILY: verdana,helvetica; WHITE-SPACE: normal; ORPHANS: 2; LETTER-SPACING: normal; COLOR: rgb(0,0,0); FONT-WEIGHT: normal; WORD-SPACING: 0px; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal" class=Apple-style-span>路钀ㄩ噾鐗瑰姞宸炲ぇ瀛︿集鍏嬪埄鍒嗘牎姣曚笟婕旇

I remember how happy I felt when I graduated from Berkeley many years ago. But I thought the graduation speeches were long. I will economize on words.
鎴戠幇鍦ㄤ緷鐒惰寰楄澶氬勾鍓嶆垜浠庝集鍏嬪埄姣曚笟鏃惰嚜宸卞紑蹇冪殑鏍峰瓙銆備笉杩囨垜瑙夊緱姣曚笟婕旇閮藉お杩囧啑闀匡紝杩欐鎴戜細瑷€绠€鎰忚祬銆?/DIV>

Economics is organized common sense. Here is a short list of valuable lessons that our beautiful subject teaches.
缁忔祹瀛︽槸甯歌瘑鐨勯泦鍚堜綋銆備笅闈㈡槸杩欓棬缇庝附鐨勫绉戞暀浼氭垜浠殑涓€浜涚弽璐佃绋嬶細

1. Many things that are desirable are not feasible.
璁稿浜嬫儏鍙亣鑰屼笉鍙眰銆?/DIV>

2. Individuals and communities face trade-offs.
涓汉鍜岄泦浣撲細闈复鏉冭 鍙栬垗銆?/DIV>

3. Other people have more information about their abilities, their efforts, and their preferences than you do.
鍒汉瀵硅嚜宸辩殑鑳藉姏銆佸姫鍔涘拰鍠滃ソ姣斾綘浜嗚В鐨勮澶氥€?/DIV>

4. Everyone responds to incentives, including people you want to help. That is why social safety nets don鈥檛 always end up working as intended.
姣忎釜浜洪兘浼氬婵€鍔卞仛鍑哄弽搴旓紙灏忕紪娉細people respond to incentives 鏇兼槅鍗佸ぇ缁忔祹瀛﹀師鐞嗕箣鍥涳級锛屽寘鎷綘鎯冲府鍔╃殑浜恒€傝繖涔熸槸涓轰粈涔堢ぞ浼氫繚闅滀綋绯绘渶鍚庢病鑳藉彂鎸ラ鏈熺殑浣滅敤銆?/DIV>

5. There are tradeoffs between equality and efficiency.
骞崇瓑鍜屾晥鐜囦箣闂翠篃闈复鏉冭 鍙栬垗銆?/DIV>

6. In an equilibrium of a game or an economy, people are satisfied with their choices. That is why it is difficult for well meaning outsiders to change things for better or worse.
鍦ㄦ父鎴忔垨鑰呯粡娴庣殑鍧囪 鐘舵€佷腑锛屼汉浠細婊℃剰浜庤嚜宸辩殑閫夋嫨锛屾墍浠ュソ蹇冪殑灞€澶栦汉涓嶇鎬庢牱閮藉緢闅炬敼鍙樹簨鎬佺殑鍙戝睍銆?/DIV>

7. In the future, you too will respond to incentives. That is why there are some promises that you鈥檇 like to make but can鈥檛. No one will believe those promises because they know that later it will not be in your interest to deliver. The lesson here is this: before you make a promise, think about whether you will want to keep it if and when your circumstances change. This is how you earn a reputation.
鍦ㄦ湭鏉ヤ綘涔熶細瀵规縺鍔卞仛鍑哄弽搴旓紝杩欎篃鏄负浠€涔堟湁浜涙壙璇轰綘鎯抽伒瀹堝彲鏄嵈娌″姙娉曞仛鍒般€傛病浜轰細鐩镐俊浣犵殑閭d簺鎵胯锛屽洜涓轰汉浠兘浜嗚В锛屼互鍚庡饱琛岃繖浜涙壙璇轰笉浼氱鍚堜綘鐨勫埄鐩娿€傛垜浠瀛︿細鐨勬槸锛氬湪鎵胯鍒汉涔嬪墠锛屾兂鎯冲鏋滆嚜宸辨儏鍐垫湁鎵€杞彉锛岃繕浼氫笉浼氬潥鎸佹壙璇猴紵杩欐槸浣犱负鑷繁璧㈠緱濂藉悕澹扮殑鍔炴硶銆?/DIV>

8. Governments and voters respond to incentives too. That is why governments sometimes default on loans and other promises that they have made.
鏀垮簻鍜岄€変妇浜轰篃浼氬婵€鍔卞仛鍑哄弽搴旓紝鎵€浠ユ斂搴滄湁鏃跺€欎細鎷栨瑺鍊哄姟鎴栨嫋寤跺饱琛屾壙璇恒€?/DIV>

9. It is feasible for one generation to shift costs to subsequent ones. That is what national government debts and the U.S. social security system do (but not the social security system of Singapore).
涓€浠d汉鎶婂紑鏀垂鐢ㄨ浆瀚佺粰涓嬩竴浠d汉锛岃繖涓姙娉曟槸鍙鐨勶紝鏀垮簻鍊哄姟鍜岀編鍥界ぞ浼氫繚闅滀綋绯诲氨鏄繖涔堝仛鐨勩€傦紙涔熸湁渚嬪锛氭柊鍔犲潯鐨勭ぞ浼氫繚闅滀綋绯诲氨闈炲姝ゃ€傦級

10. When a government spends, its citizens eventually pay, either today or tomorrow, either through explicit taxes or implicit ones like inflation.
鏀垮簻鑺遍挶浜烘皯涔板崟锛岀幇鍦ㄥ拰灏嗘潵閮芥槸杩欐牱锛岀洿鎺ュ緛绋庣殑鏂瑰紡涔熷ソ锛岄€氳揣鑶ㄨ儉杩欐牱鐨勯殣褰㈡柟寮忎篃濂斤紝杩欐槸涓嶅彉鐨勬儻渚嬨€?/DIV>

11. Most people want other people to pay for public goods and government transfers (especially transfers to themselves).
澶ч儴鍒嗕汉閮芥兂璁╁埆浜轰负鍏叡浜嬪姟鎴栬€呮斂搴滆浆绉绘€ф敮鍑轰拱鍗曪紙鐗瑰埆褰撹繖浜涜浆绉绘€ф敮鍑虹殑瀵硅薄鏄粬浠嚜宸辨椂锛夈€?/DIV>

12. Because market prices aggregate traders鈥?information, it is difficult to forecast stock prices and interest rates and exchange rates.
鍥犱负甯傚満浠锋牸闆嗗悎浜嗘墍鏈変氦鏄撹€呯殑淇℃伅锛屾墍浠ュ緢闅鹃娴嬭偂浠枫€佸埄鐜囧拰姹囩巼绛夈€?/DIV>

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[db:标题]这是个盛产明星的时代,电影明星、体育明星等等,各行各业都有自己的明星。明星们星光四射,让无数人为之倾倒。但明星在未成为明星前也曾是一个普通人,只不过他们比我们付出了更多的努力,才有了今天的地位。没有人生来就是明星的,明星是熬出来的。2001年,孙俪在《情深深雨蒙蒙》中跑龙套,为赵薇伴舞。

[db:标题]这是个盛产明星的时代,电影明星、体育明星等等,各行各业都有自己的明星。明星们星光四射,让无数人为之倾倒。但明星在未成为明星前也曾是一个普通人,只不过他们比我们付出了更多的努力,才有了今天的地位。没有人生来就是明星的,明星是熬出来的。2001年,孙俪在《情深深雨蒙蒙》中跑龙套,为赵薇伴舞。



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